Kermanshah Province or Kermanshahan
(In Kurdish: Parzegai Kermashan) With an area of 2 square kilometers, it is the 17th largest province in Iran. It is bounded on the north by Kurdistan, on the south by Lorestan and Ilam, on the east by Hamedan and on the west by Iraq. The capital of Kermanshah province is the city of Kermanshah. According to the latest changes, Kermanshah province consists of 14 counties, 31 cities, 31 section and 86 villages with a population of 1,945,227.
Why Bisotun historical and cultural complex?
The carved stone of Darius in Bisotun historical and cultural complex is one of the list of World Heritage Sites in Iran.
Bisotun historical and cultural complex despite numerous monuments such as the Statue of Hercules II, relief of Mehrdad II, Farhad Trash, Bisotun Bridge, Shah Abbasi Caravansary, Shahi Road and … are considered to be one of the most important ancient archeological sites in Iran.
The plain of Bisotun and its sacred mountain have long been important among people, and the kings have rebelled in various territories from its vicinity.
There are caves on Mount Bisotun that carry signs of human presence since the Paleolithic.
There are about 28 national registered artifacts in Bisotun historical and cultural complex, and 170 identified sites in the area, about 100 of which are listed in the National and Historical Monuments List. An area that has consistently and continuously housed archaeological artifacts from our pre-historic times to the 20th century. The most important part of the historic and cultural site of Bisotun, the inscription and stone is the prominent Darius Achaemenid inscription chosen on July 13, 2006 at the UNESCO World Heritage List No. 1222 at the UNESCO Summit. It was the eighth monument in Iran to be listed and was recognized as a valuable structure by world standards. The whole of this historical, natural and cultural site was also listed on the Iranian National Heritage List on 6 October 2002 with number 6463.
Temple of Anahita, Kangavar
Temple of Anahita is considered to be the largest integrated stone structure of Iran and is numbered 31 in the national list of Iranian monuments in 1310. As time goes on and extensive excavations of the temple grounds reveal that this hidden structure in the soil, after Persepolis, is the largest historical stone building in Iran.
Anahita is the goddess of water and the keeper of the Farvahar (Ahoura Mazda, the Zoroastrian’s God) symbol, the god of abundance and righteousness, the god of wind and rain, the fountain and the mire, the rain and the cloud. The stories tell of a goddess who came to the clouds and gave pure water to the people.
According to the most famous and precise research done, the date of construction of this stone building dates back to the Achaemenid era. Later in the Parthian era, party architects continued to build it, and during the Sassanid era the building was completed, and remains of the Seljuk era municipal installations were found in the temple area.
What we know as Taq-e Bostan is a collection of Sassanid petroglyphs and inscriptions located in the Taq-e Bostan neighborhood in the northwest of Kermanshah. The site dates back to the third century AD and is regarded as one of the most valuable monuments in Iran and even in the world. Khosrow Parviz’s coronation, Ardashir II’s coronation, Shahpour’s II and III coronation, and some inscriptions or inscriptions on the Pahlavi line, boar hunting by horsemen and music playing with harp instruments, etc. are some of the motifs in this collection.
The magnificence of this mountain, and the prominent roles that were carved with such elegance and precision at the time, will amaze you. The presence of a lake in the space of this historic place also doubles its beauty and doubles the pleasure of visiting.
Because of its mountains and springs, it has long been a hub for hunting and displaying the power of kings, and is still welcomed by tourists today because of its attractive climate. Locals refer to this place as the coolest place in the city and a place to escape the summer heat and mingle there in the hot seasons.
Dokan-e-Davood Rock Tomb
This tomb is located at the beginning of Anzal Road (a village of the same name in the central part of Sar-e-Pol Zahab) and about 100 meters from the main road of Kermanshah to Sar-e Pol-Zahab.
The rock tomb is different from the tomb and is a kind of rock architecture. The cemetery is a place on the mountain where people’s bodies were found to be broken down by birds and animals, but the tomb was a tomb that was shaped like a room to bury one or more people in the mountains, hills, or rocks, and enough space to sit, put things in and hold the ceremony.
The tombs of Iranian crypts can be attributed to three different eras: The Median, Achaemenian, and post-Achaemenian era. Investigations have found no pre-Median rifts in Iran except for a rocky hill in Hasanloo Hill, but numerous pre-Median rifts have been discovered in Turkey around Lake Van (Urartu Influence Area). Therefore, it can be concluded that the source is more related to the architecture of the overtures than to the Assyrian origin.
Unlike the Medes, Achaemenid wolves have the same shape and design as the cross, varying from 2 to 9 graves. The entrance to the well is at the intersection of the two crosses and there are columns on the horizontal line. The upper part generally has a prominent role and the lower part has no decoration. The first cave of Darius the Great and the last cave of the Achaemenid belong to Darius III, whose carving remains unfinished.
Various theories have been put forward about the age of this cave, which is known among the locals as the Kal Davood (Kal Davoo) and the shop of David. Some believe that the tomb belongs to the Median era, and that Deacon David is also the tomb of the last Median king, Ishtuvigo, who was deposed by Cyrus the Great, but new research has revealed that this tomb belongs to the Achaemenid era. Its strong prominence probably dates back to the Seleucid era
The National Archaeological Record, numbered 152 in 1310, is 12 meters above the ground, making it a little difficult to access.
Taq-e Gara, also known as the Sweet Arch, is one of the ancient monuments of Kermanshah province, located 15 kilometers from Sarpol Zahab city on the way to Kermanshah to Sarpol Zahab, next to an ancient paving road that connects the Iranian plateau to Mesopotamia.
The root of the archaic word goes back to the term “Grave tribe”. This tribe belongs to the Lak and Lor group of languages that have taken over the western border of Iran.
Some archaeologists attribute this construction to the Parthian era and others to the Sassanid era. But research indicates that it was built in the late Sassanid era and likely during the reign of Khosrow II. The building has no written stone and only two marks left from the Parthians remain.
Its functions include “Royal Family Resorts”, “Royal Palace”, “Caravan Road”, “Victory Monument” and “Border Crossing”.
Ishac vand Rock Tombs
Ishac vand Rock Tombs or Sakavand, three carved springs in the heart of the mountain dating back to Median era, are located 25 kilometers southwest of Hersin in Kermanshah province.
In our ancient ancestors’ beliefs, the lifeless body had no value and was unclean. Thus, the manner in which the corpse was destroyed was not of much importance, and the only essential rule for the burial of the underworld was that their corpse would not contaminate the living place. Under the same belief, the rocks and hills that were far from the settlements were chosen for burial. These burials were carried out in a variety of ways, resulting in the preservation of numerous ancient buildings such as crevices and crypts in the land.
The Ishac vand belong to the Median era, but there is controversy among archaeologists about the age of these sources, the most prominent of them being that of the German Iranian theologian Ernest Emil Hertzfeldt.
Hertzfeldt refers to the Middle Gordium as being the Magi’s Guatemala (False Brigade) and believes that the name Seqvand was assigned to Darius I by the site of the murder of Darius I, the Sakvand Castle, in connection with the site of the Magi’s killing.
Tekyeh Moaven al-molk
The background of the construction of Takayeh’s deputy traces back to the Qajar era, 114 years ago. The building is located on Haddad Adil Street in Kermanshah, where the ancients still know this neighborhood as its old name, Abshuran. The leaning building is now in a hollow and you will need to go a few steps to enter it.
The complex consists of three main sections of Husseiniyeh, Zainabiyeh and Abbasieh, and its beautiful tile work is unique in the world.
In 1281 AH (1941), Hossein Khan Mu’in al-Ra’a ya (grandfather of Rahim Mo’ini Kermanshahi, contemporary poet) built a section of Hosseinayeh for the purpose of holding Ta’ziyeh and Imam Hossein rituals in Kermanshah.
In 1288, a group of constitutionalists tore down this exquisite monument, which shone like a gem in western Iran, destroying it and burning it. After these incidents, as well as the assassination of Hossein Khan Mo’in al-Raya, reconstruction of the temple was delayed for a long time. Finally, in 1320, Mirza Hassan Khan, the deputy of Husseiniyah, bought it from his brothers and began to repair it.
In 1326, Hassan Khan purchased the adjacent building of Husseiniyeh and built parts of Zainabiyeh and Abbasieh so that Reliance could respond to the mourners. The same year, the deputy devoted himself to religious ceremonies and mourning for the infallible Imams. He sent 20 copies of the endowment to the scholars of Najaf, Qom, and Kermanshah as well as a certain family. The deputy died in the year 1327, and was buried in Zaynabiyeh subdivision of the deputy.
Hassan Khan’s late life began with the change of Qajar rule to Pahlavi, as well as his financial situation, during which the building was destroyed. Sayyed Mohammad Meibodi and Mr. Sheikh Mohammad Hadi Jalili proposed to turn the Abbasiyeh district into a school of Islamic sciences in order to avoid damaging the building so that it could benefit from the repair. Since then, Abbasiyeh has remained a school for 30 years.
In 1352, Tekyeh Moaven al-molk was handed over to the Bureau of Culture and Art of the time.
The Tekyeh Biglarbeygi, dating back to the Qajar era, was created by a person named Abdullah Khan called Beiglerbigi. In 2004, a museum of handwriting and books was opened on the Tekyeh Biglarbeygi. The museum houses papers, documents, historical documents and manuscripts and is open to visitors. In addition, the Zagros Paleolithic Museum is the only Paleolithic Museum in the Middle East, which is part of Tekyeh.
Tekyeh Biglarbeygi reliance on the old texture of the city of Kermanshah is located on Modarres Street in front of the Jame Mosque. Construction of this auxiliary was begun in 1309 AH by the late Khadem al-Hussein Abdullah Khan Farashbashi, known as the great and influential authority of Kermanshah during the Qajar period, and its construction was completed in 1315 AH, 6 years later. Also plaster decorations and mirror work were completed in 1326 AH.
The architectural type of this ancillary is related to the Qajar period and is crescent-like. On the west side, the Zandieh architecture was used in the form of an octagon, and was the site of Abdullah Khan’s court, as well as the residence of his brothers and sons.
The most important part of relying on the Tekyeh Biglarbeygi is the western part and the dome of the Husseiniyah is located there. It consists of a relatively large porch that leans into the courtyard through a three-step staircase of stone. There are two relatively tall wooden columns and two columns in this section. The surface of each of these columns is covered with plaster. Also their headstones are similar to those of Byzantine headstones, which are decorated with floral and plant stucco. The roof of the porch also has inlay decorations. One can access the main space of Husseiniyah through a large wooden door with a beautiful sash. Hosseinieh is a two-storey space with six rooms built on each floor.
The roof of the Husseiniyah is dome-covered and the exterior of the roof and its interior are decorated with beautiful mirrors. In each of the earrings, there is a crescent-shaped window with a mirror reflecting the sentences (La Elaha elallah, Muhammad Rasulullah) and (Ali Waliullah) which means there is no God just Allah and Mohammad is the messenger of the God and Ali is representative of God. Other decorations in Hosseinieh’s space include plaster columns, geometric patterns, plant motifs, and candlesticks.
This relic has been registered in the National List of Works in December 1997, No. 1797. It acquired its cultural heritage in 2001 and was restored in 2002 and 2003 and opened in 2004 as a museum of script and book. In 2008, the Zagros Paleolithic Museum was inaugurated on the southern side by the Cultural Heritage.
Kermanshah Mountain Park in the north of Kermanshah and close to Taq Bostan Historical Complex is of particular importance in this city. The park is one of the largest and most beautiful parks in the west of the country, with two beautiful waterfalls and beautiful nights with pleasant lighting from Kermanshah tourist spots.
The area was favored by the Sassanid kings due to its natural climate and temperate, and it was a royal sanctuary and hunting ground, on both sides of the Grand Arch of Taq-e Bostan, the scene of the Sassanid king’s carving.
Hiking, cycling and kites are among the park’s most popular activities. The 2 waterfalls in the park cause many people to hold family picnics in the area. There are also facilities such as children’s playgrounds and restaurants. The mountain park is also called Kermanshah Roof, because from the north of the park you will see a 360-degree view of the city.
The Sarab Sahneh, also known as the Darband Sahneh, is located in the northern part of the city and is one of the most favorable weather areas in the city. The beautiful waterfalls, scenic nature and the wonderful climate of the area have made it a perfect destination for travelers and tourists alike. The Sarab Sahneh variety of lush trees. The source of the waterfall is called the Chahar Cheshmeh located in the northern part of the waterfall and in a not too detached time a small waterfall formed. Nowadays, this drought is known as dried Waterfall.
The historical background of Darband city goes back to pre-Islamic times. The existence of graveyards in the mountains of this region affirms its antiquity. Sarab Sahneh is one of the most spectacular places in Kermanshah in the northern part of Darband city. Current waters in the area are blessed with four springs in the northern part of the enclosure. The interconnectedness of the Chahar Springs in the Darband waterfall can be seen. Thanks to the presence of this water, many peoples and plains are supplied around the Sarab Sahneh.
Sarab Darband is one of the main resorts of the city’s residents. In spring and summer, families complete their enjoyment by camping in the shade of the trees.
Translated by: Alireza Pedarpour